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《母親》是俄國偉大的無產階級作家高爾基最優秀的作品之一。這部小說深刻地反映了20世紀初俄國無產階級政黨領導下波瀾壯闊的群眾革命斗爭,第一次塑造了具有社會主義覺悟的無產階級英雄的形象。

小說描寫了老鉗工伊爾·弗拉索夫的一生以及他的兒子的變化,通過這一家的遭遇表現了工人階級如何從自發走向自覺的過程。母親的形象在這部小說里非常重要,母親的覺醒過程,充分表現了廣大群眾在黨的教育下必然走向革命道路的歷史趨勢。小說的重要人物是巴維爾的母親尼洛夫娜。她像千百萬受壓迫的婦女一樣,被繁重的勞動和丈夫的毆打折磨成逆來順受、忍氣吞聲的人。

丈夫死后,當兒子走上革命的道路時,母親也在兒子以及他的同志們的啟發、幫助下,逐漸接受革命的真理。在“沼地戈比”事件以后,母親為了搭救兒子出獄,接受了散發傳單的任務。“五一”游行時,巴維爾高舉紅旗走在隊伍的最前列,在武裝警察面前英勇不屈。這使母親進一步懂得了真理的力量,也使她更自覺地參加革命工作。巴維爾再次被捕后,她搬到城里,和革命者住在一起,堅決擔負起革命工作,完全獻身給共產黨。

她常裝扮成修女、小市民或女商販,帶著傳單奔走于市鎮和鄉村。巴維爾在法庭上的演說及斗爭更進一步提高了母親的覺悟。小說結尾時,母親冒著生命危險去傳送印有兒子在法庭上的演說的傳單,不幸在車站被暗探圍住。這時,母親勇敢地把傳單散發給車站上的群眾。在被捕時,她莊嚴地宣稱:“真理是用血的海洋也撲不滅的。”

Part I Chapter I2015-05-18
Every day the factory whistle bellowed forth its shrill, roaring, trembling noises into the smoke-begrimed and greasy atmosphere of the workingmens suburb; and obedient to the summons of the power of steam, people poured out of little gray houses into the street. With somber faces they hasten
Chapter II2015-05-17
Nikolay Ivanovich lived on a quiet, deserted street, in a little green wing annexed to a black two-storied structure swollen with age. In front of the wing was a thickly grown little garden, and branches of lilac bushes, acacias, and silvery young poplars looked benignly and freshly into the windows
Chapter III2015-05-17
Three days passed in incessant conversations with Sofya and Nikolay. The mother continued to recount tales of the past, which stubbornly arose from the depths of her awakened soul, and disturbed even herself. Her past demanded an explanation. The attention with which the brother and sister listened
Chapter IV2015-05-16
The three men walked away, leaving Sofya in the cabin. Then from a distance came the sound of the ax blows, the echo straying through the foliage. In a half-dreamy condition of repose, intoxicated with the spicy odor of the forest, Sofya sat just outside the door, humming a song, and watching the ap
Chapter V2015-05-16
The life of Nilovna flowed on with strange placidity. This calmness sometimes astonished her. There was her son immured in prison. She knew that a severe sentence awaited him, yet every time the idea of it came to her mind her thoughts strayed to Andrey, Fedya, and an endless series of other people
Chapter VI2015-05-15
Once Nikolay, usually so punctual, came from his work much later than was his wont, and said, excitedly rubbing his hands: Do you know, Nilovna, to-day at the visiting hour one of our comrades disappeared from prison? But we have not succeeded in finding out who. The mothers body
Chapter VII2015-05-15
The mother folded Yegors hands over his breast and adjusted his head, which was strangely warm, on the pillow. Then silently wiping her eyes, she went to Liudmila, bent over her, and quietly stroked her thick hair. The woman slowly turned around to her, her dull eyes widened in a sickly way.
Chapter VIII2015-05-14
The next morning a number of men and women stood at the gate of the hospital waiting for the coffin of their comrade to be carried out to the street. Spies watchfully circled about, their ears alert to catch each sound, noting faces, manners, and words. From the other side of the street a group of p
Chapter IX2015-05-14
Sofya was already at home when they reached the house. She met the mother with a cigarette in her teeth. She was somewhat ruffled, but, as usual, bold and assured of manner. Putting the wounded man on the sofa, she deftly unbound his head, giving orders and screwing up her eyes from the smoke of her
Chapter X2015-05-13
The next day, early in the morning, the mother was seated in the post chaise, jolting along the road washed by the autumn rain. A damp wind blew on her face, the mud splashed, and the coachman on the box, half-turned toward her, complained in a meditative snuffle:I say to him - my broth
Chapter XI2015-05-13
The mother went to the room in the tavern, sat herself at the table in front of the samovar, took a piece of bread in her hand, looked at it, and slowly put it back on the plate. She was not hungry; the feeling in her breast rose again and flushed her with nausea. She grew faint and dizzy; the blood
Chapter XII2015-05-12
The mother lay motionless, with ears strained in the drowsy stillness, and before her in the darkness wavered Rybins face covered with blood. In the loft a dry whisper could be heard. You see what sort of people go into this work? Even elderly people who have drunk the cup of misery to
Chapter XIII2015-05-12
The mother fell quickly into a calm sleep, and rose early in the morning, awakened by a subdued tap at the kitchen door. The knock was incessant and patiently persistent. It was still dark and quiet, and the rapping broke in alarmingly on the stillness. Dressing herself rapidly, she walked out into
Chapter XIV2015-05-11
The mother and Nikolay, walking up to the window, watched the girl pass through the yard and disappear beyond the gate. Nikolay whistled quietly, sat down at the table and began to write. Shell occupy herself with this affair, and itll be easier for her, the mother reflect
Chapter XV2015-05-11
Pavel and Andrey sat side by side; along with them on the first bench were Mazin, Samoylov, and the Gusevs. Andrey had shaved his beard, but his mustache had grown and hung down, and gave his round head the appearance of a seacow or walrus. Something new lay on his face; something sharp and biting i
Chapter XVI2015-05-10
She silently nodded her head and smiled, satisfied that her son had spoken so bravely, perhaps still more satisfied that he had finished. The thought darted through her mind that the speech was likely to increase the dangers threatening Pavel; but her heart palpitated with pride, and his words seeme
Chapter XVII2015-05-10
At home they sat on the sofa closely pressed together, and the mother resting in the quiet again began to speak about Sashas going to Pavel. Thoughtfully raising her thick eyebrows, the girl looked into the distance with her large, dreamy eyes. A contemplative expression rested on her pale fa
Chapter XVIII2015-05-09
When she opened her eyes the room was filled by the cold, white glimmer of a clear wintry day. The hostess, with a book in her hand, lay on the sofa, and smiling unlike herself looked into her face. Oh, father! the mother exclaimed, for some reason embarrassed. Just look! Have I
Chapter XIX2015-05-09
In the street the frozen atmosphere enveloped her body invigoratingly, penetrated into her throat, tickled her nose, and for a second suppressed the breathing in her bosom. The mother stopped and looked around. Near to her, at the corner of the empty street, stood a cabman in a shaggy hat; at a slig
Chapter XX2015-05-08
Comrades! the voice of Pavel was heard. Soldiers are people the same as ourselves. They will not strike us! Why should they beat us? Because we bear the truth necessary for all? This our truth is necessary to them, too. Just now they do not understand this; but the time is neari
Part II Chapter I2015-05-08
The day passed in a motley blur of recollections, in a depressing state of exhaustion, which tightly clutched at the mothers body and soul. The faces of the young men flashed before her mental vision, the banner blazed, the songs clamored at her ear, the little officer skipped about, a gray s

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