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This, in a very general way, is what happened during the centuries which followed the Crusades.
Under these circumstances, the noble knight could not well show the rage which filled his heart and his proud soul.
Suppose that we let him have a hundred ducats and that he give us in return a written guarantee allowing
That was dangerous business for the borrower.
The mediaeval knight was a country squire and was rarely forced to pay for materials in money.
Soon certain energetic merchants discovered that the goods which they had always imported from afar could be made at home.
You have seen how a few artisans(butchers and bakers and an occasional candle-stick maker) came
No, the progress of the last six hundred years would not have been possible without the existence of cities.
But please do not be too sentimental about the good old days. Many people who only see the beautiful churches and the great works of art which the Middle Ages have left behind grow quite eloquent
But if the progress of the world had been left to the serf and his feudal master, we would still
Meanwhile the German chieftain, the Frankish Baron, the Northman Duke (or whatever their names and titles) occupied
Why the people of the middle ages said that city air is free air
Of course, it would never do to say this openly.
During the next two centuries, seven other crusades took place. Gradually the Crusaders learned the technique of the trip.
The first Crusade, a wild mob of honest Christians, defaulting bankrupts, penniless noblemen and fugitives
Pope Urban II, a Frenchman from Reims, who had been educated at the same famous cloister of Cluny which had trained Gregory VII
But all these different quarrels were forgotten when the Turks took the holy land, desecrated the holy places and interfered interfered seriously with the trade from east to west. Europe went crusading
This led to more warfare. Conrad V, the son of Conrad IV, and the last of the Hohenstaufens
The Hohenstaufen family which got hold of the Imperial German Throne shortly afterwards, were even more independent than their predecessors.
The Pope answered with excommunication and a demand that the German princes rid themselves of their unworthy ruler.
In the year 1059 this had been changed. By a decree of Pope Nicholas II the principal priests and deacons
It was never easy to give the correct answer. When the Emperor happened to be a man of energy and was sufficiently well provided with money to organise an army
The people of the early Middle Ages never saw a textbook of Roman history.
The strange double loyalty of the people of the middle ages and how it led to endless quarrels between the popes and the holy roman emperors
Like all human institutions, Knighthood was doomed to perish as soon as it had outlived its usefulness.
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